Electrodynamical modelling of bidirectional fuel cell systems for HIL simulations of combined grid systems

For investigating combined grid systems including electrical, thermal and chemical grids, a scientific approach based on Hardware-in-the-loop simulation is carried out where models as virtual energy components are coupled with experimental facilities. In this contribution, a bidirectional fuel cell system is described in detail as a virtual energy component considering the bidirectional fuel cell, the power inverter and the local management. For modelling the bidirectional cell, the electrochemical domain is considered by a physical-based approach in a first step. Common models for unidirectional fuel cells or electrolysis cells are discussed regarding the applicability for bidirectional cells. Afterwards, the DC-DC converter as part of the overall power inverter is considered for modelling. A novel averaged model for the dual active bridge based on the method by Sanders and Verghese is presented. Finally, the overall model and local management of such systems are discussed.