Load shifting potential of electric vehicles using management systems for increasing renewable energy share in smart grids

A decarbonisation of the energy system is necessary to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and thus achieve the climate protection goals. For this reason, the renewable energy share in the power grids of many countries is increasing. In order to stabilize the energy system and increase its flexibility, energy management systems are needed. This paper offers a model of energy management system which starts from the network operator and ends at the consumer (an electric vehicle). Firstly, a controllable local system signal, which is sent through a smart meter gateway from the grid operator to the consumer, has been developed. The signal is based on the renewable energy share in the local grid, on the electricity exchange price and on a defined profile. Then, different charging modes, which regulate the energy consumption based on the signal, have been developed and field tested. Finally, the charging modes have been simulated in order to better compare the data. The results show that with smart charging, 90% of the energy demand can be rescheduled. In view of the load shifting, greenhouse gas emissions and energy costs can be reduced.